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500 - 2015



A merchant is a business person who trades in commodities produced by others, in order to earn a profit. 

A merchant class status can range from high (the members even eventually achieving titles such as that of Merchant Prince or Nabob) to low, as in Chinese culture, owing to the presumed distastefulness of profiting from "mere" trade rather than from labor or the labor of others as in agriculture and craftsmanship.
In the Greco-Roman world merchants typically did not have high social status, though they may have enjoyed great wealth, and there were exceptions, such as in Syria and Palestine in late antiquity, where merchants did have a high social position.

Medieval attitudes toward merchants in the West were strongly influenced by criticism of their activities by the Christian church, which closely associated their activities with the sin of usury.

From around 1300 to the 1800s a large number of European Chartered and Merchant Companies were established to exploit international trading opportunities, for instance the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, Chartered in 1407.
The Company of Merchant Adventurers of London brought together London's leading overseas merchants in a regulated company in the early 15th century, in the nature of a guild. Its members' main business was the export of cloth, especially white (undyed) broadcloth. This enabled them to import a large range of foreign goods. In the early seventeenth century, similar groups of investors were formed to develop overseas trade and colonies in the New World: the London Company of Adventurers (which later split into the Virginia Company settling Jamestown and the Chesapeake Bay area, and the Plymouth Company, which settled New England).

Old China Trade sanitzed version

  • Augustine Heard & Co.
  • Dent & Co.  -- Dent Off Shore Leaks 

    • 1810: Palmer and Co linked with London house of Palmer-McKillop and Co, Mr John Palmer came to India in the 1780s and had a firm with Mr Barber, and later on joined Cockerell Trail and Co, by 1810 was Palmer and Co, both Trail and Cockerell kept much funds with Palmer and Co. (See S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, pp. 9-15.)

      1810: Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, opium trader, active before 1810. Later an associate of William Jardine in sending Malwa opium to China. Ship insurance. Sent cotton vainly to England on his own account. 
      See Asiya Siddiqi, 'The Business World of Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. XIX, Nos. 3&4., pp. 301-324

    • 1810: Britain occupies Mauritius and Bengal houses are asked to sell the island food. About this time, Indian convicts under sentence of life transportation began to be sent from Bengal (meaning NSW remained destination for Caucasian convicts only). In 1815 the first batch of Indians went from the Allypore jail to Mauritius, the island's government had to borrow from Fairlie Fergusson and Co. at Calcutta, eg., 30,000 dollars per month; such deals went on into the 1820s. 
      S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, p. 97.

    • 1810: Opium trader and East India Company figure, George Dent of Dent and Co., an agency house active by 1810. Parents unknown. Dent's are often mentioned in books on South-East Asian trade but remain surprisingly little-known. (These Dents do not seem to be listed in Burke's Landed Gentry for Dent of Flass?) The firm Jardine, Dent and Co. collapses in 1867. Dent and Co was founded by the Scot, Walter Stevenson Davidson noted above (see Dyster, Fanning and Jones, p. 367.), Davidson having circumvented the East India Company by assuming Portuguese nationality. Dent and Co. were the second agency house to establish at Canton. The prosperity of Dent and Co. is based on import of raw cotton and opium from fellow agencies in India, finding ready market in China; they did not need bullion from home, and later moved into indigo. A house named Dent and Co. collapses in 1860. 
      See Parker's essay, pp. 202ff in R. A. Cage, Scots Abroad; S. B. Singh, Agency Houses, pp. 12-13. Keswick, Thistle and the Jade, variously.

  • Benjamin Bakewell Atterbury, was a New York merchant with a shipping agency in Manchester who in 1847 married Olivia Phelps, daughter of Anson Greene Phelps and Olivia Egleston. Boudinot Atterbury’s uncles included James Boulter Stokes, Daniel James, Charles F. Pond and William Earle Dodge, wealthy families that supported and funded his missionary work in China.[8] His brother and one of his sisters married into the Van Rensselaer family who had relatives working in China (some of whom were killed in the Boxer uprising). Another of his sponsors was Deborah Matilda Douw, who was also related via the Van Rensselaer connection. She survived the uprising by disguising herself in traditional Chinese clothing. [9]

  • Jardine Matheson -- Panama Papers and Offshore Leaks -  Jardine
  • Olyphant & Co. 
  • Lord Palmerston wrote to his close collaborator Foreign Secretary Lord John Russell (grandfather and guardian of  Lord Bertrand Russell).

The Law of Banking is known as International Maritime Admiralty Law. This Maritime Law was based on VATICAN CANON LAW

British East India Company 
& Dutch West India Company Rule the World

Dutch West India Company does to the American Virgin Islands
what the Dutch East India does to Taiwan (Formosa) aka Treasure Island!

The six chambers raised the start-up capital of the Dutch East India Company:


  • 540 Bubonic plague engulfs the Roman Empire until 592.
  • 553 Justinian convenes the Second Synod of Constantinople, issuing a decree that bans the doctrine of “past lifetimes” or “reincarnation”, as well as removal of all veiled references to pre-existence from religious documents.
  • 567 Gregory of Tours reports that just before the bubonic plague invaded the Auvergne region of France, three brilliant lights appeared around the sun “and the heavens appeared to be on fire.”
  • 590 Another historian reports that bright lights in the sky precede the plague in another province in France.


1099 Christian Crusades to free Palestine from the Muslims. (To 1270).

1119 Founding of the Knights Templar.

1228 German emperor Frederick II leads a Crusade to Jerusalem.

1243 Centralization of Papal power in Pope Innocent IV until 1254.

1298 Between 1298 and 1314 seven large “comets” seen over Europe.

1333 A plague in China, preceded by a “terrible mist emitting a fearful stench and infecting the air”.

1347 Bubonic plague spreads in Europe through 1350. Over 100 million would die from the plague during the next 400 years.

1350 Renaissance period, with its emphasis on freedom of the human spirit, replaces oligarchic control structures in Europe. It produces individualism that is immediately expressed as republican nationalism, dedicated to ending all hereditary control and dictatorship over the lives of people.

The Rennaissance Period becomes de-structured again by the old families in Europe.

England eventually becomes the source of the movement to destroy nationalism (initially through conquest and establishment of the British Empire) and individualism, expressed in the Communist movement.
Eventually, two world wars would be planned to restore rule by the oligarchy.

1400 European power centers coalesce into two camps: the Ghibellines, who supported the Emporors Hohenstaufen family, and the Guelphs, from Welf, the German prince who competed with Frederick for control of the Holy Roman Empire.

All modern history stems directly from the struggle between these two powers. The Pope allied himself with the GuelphsThe Guelphs are also called the Neri, Black Guelphs, or Black Nobility, and supported William of Orange in his seizure of the throne of England, which eventually resulted in the formation of the Bank of England and the East India Company, which would rule the world from the 17th century.


The Honorable East India Company during this period was controlled by the Baring Brothers Bank (Toward the closing decades of the 17th century, the British House of Rothschild would supplant the Baring Brothers as the controlling financial interests in the China opium trade.

All coup d´etats, revolutions and wars in the 19th and 20th centuries are centered in the battle of the Guelphs to hold and enhance their power, which is now the New World Order. The power of the Guelphs would extend through the Italian financial centers to the north of France in Lombardy (all Italian bankers were referred to as “Lombards”.
Lombard in German means “deposit bank”, and the Lombards were bankers to the entire Medieval world. They would later transfer operations north to Hamburg, then to Amsterdam and finally to London.

The Guelphs would start the slave trade to the colonies.
Guelphs, in order to aid their control of finance and politics, would perpetuate gnostic cults which eventually developed into the Rosicrucian, Unitarians, Fabian Society and the World Council of Churches. The East India company, together with John Stuart Mill, would finance the University of London. A friend of Mill, George Grote, would give the University of London £6000 to study “mental health”, which began the worldwide “mental health” movement.


1444 Men taken from Lagos, Africa to Seville, Spain and sold into slavery to work the sugar cane fields.

1454 Pope induced to extend his blessing to the slave trade and his authority to “attack, subject and reduce to slavery the Saracens, Pagans and other “enemies of Christ.” Portugal becomes a prime user of slavery to promote its trade in sugar, to which people were becoming addicted.

1492 The Inquisition: Jews thrown out of Spain. Some become pirates. 

"….these pirates were Jewish merchants and adventurers who had escaped the Spanish Inquisitions at the dawn of the age of exploration in the 1500 and 1600s. In the New World, they could assume many new identities. They soon became aligned with the Dutch and other enemies of the Spanish in the Caribbean and lived off plunder. One of the more famous Jewish pirates was the Moroccan-born Rabbi Samuel Palache; another eventually founded the first openly Jewish settlement in the New World.​

1493 Columbus transports sugar cane to the New World on the advice of Queen Isabela. Members of his crew acquire syphilis in Haiti.

  • 1495 Syphilis epidemic spreads to Europe from Naples, Italy, where the troops of Charles VIII were quartered.
  • 1495 Syphilis reaches Germany and Switzerland.
  • 1496 Treatment of syphilis using mercury compounds introduced, based on Arabic use of mercury compounds to treat skin diseases.
  • 1496 Syphilis reaches England and Holland.
  • 1497 Severe famine in Florence, Italy.
  • 1497 Vasco da Gama carries syphilis to India.
  • 1498 Syphilis outbreak in India.
  • 1500 Epidemic of syphilis.

1500 Dutch establish a sugar refinery at Antwerp and ships sugar to Germany and England.

  • 1501 Swift development of book printing and typography.
  • 1505 Syphilis outbreak reaches Canton, China.
  • 1509 First attempts to restrict right to practice medicine to licensed doctors.

1510 King Ferdinand consents to recruitment of the first large contingent of African slaves in the growing Spanish sugar industry.

1515 Spanish monks offer loans in gold to anyone who would start a sugar mill.

  • 1526 to 1546, there was a tendency for syphilis to become milder and more chronic in nature.
  • 1528 Severe outbreaks of plague in England.
  • 1533 First non-medical insane asylums instituted.
  • 1557 Massive influenza epidemic in Europe.

1526 The Portuguese were the first to engage in the New World slave trade in the 16th century, other countries soon followed. The Atlantic slave traders, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, and the Dutch Empire. The first Africans imported to the English colonies were classified as "indentured servants", like workers coming from England, and also as "apprentices for life". By the middle of the 17th century, slavery had hardened as a racial caste; they and their offspring were legally the property of their owners, and children born to slave mothers were slaves. As property, the people were considered merchandise or units of labour, and were sold at markets with other goods and services.

1544 The Portuguese sighted Taiwan and named it Ihla Formosa (Beautiful Island) in and spent the next couple of decades establishing regular trade.

1558 Tobacco first brought to Europe from Mexico.

1560 Charles V of Spain builds vast palaces using taxes on sugar trade

  • 1563 General outbreak of plague in Europe. Kills 20,000 in London.
  • 1567 In South America, 2 million die from typhoid fever.
  • 1568 Disease epidemic in Lisbon kills 40,000.

1573 First German sugar cane refinery at Augsburg.

1578 First recognized description of whooping cough (Pertussis) by French physician Guillame Baillou during epidemic in Paris.

1592 Plague kills 15,000 people in London.

1580 The formal beginning of Anglo-Ottoman relations dates back to correspondence between Elizabeth I and the Ottoman Sultan Murad III which led to an agreement between the two rulers that English merchants could pass safely through Ottoman-controlled seas and port in the eastern Mediterranean and the Barbary Coast of North Africa. This essentially granted trading privileges to the English, who for various reasons, mainly piracy, had been unable to trade efficiently in the Mediterranean since the 1550s, and in September 1581, the Turkey Company was established as a joint-stock venture to take advantage of this new monopoly on regional trade.

1596-1597 Cornelis Houtman first Dutch voyage to the East Indies.

1599 Outbreak of plague in Spain.

1599: London September 24 -- 2016 Levant Company Panama Papers

About eighty English merchants meet to discuss the formation of an English East India Company. Including, Richard Staper (Levant Co), Thomas Smythe (Levant Co), Sir John Hart, Richard Cockayne, Lord Mayor Sir Stephen Soane (1622-1661) also the great-great grandfather of Thomas Jefferson. 

The East India Company (EIC) stands apart as the world's first major shareholder company, which ruled a fifth of the world's population, with a quarter million private army and generated revenues much greater than the whole of Britain. It played a key role in the triggering of globalization, long before it became a buzzword.
By 1707, the EIC became Britain's single most successful enterprise and the biggest single employer in London.

Under the Chairmanship of the Lord Mayor, Sir Stephen Soane, agreed to petition Elizabeth I, to set up a company to trade with the East Indies. After a series of political negotiations and finance raising, finally the EIC was incorporated on December 31, 1600. Queen Elizabeth granted a charter to the Governor and Company of Merchants of London for fifteen years with the primary purpose of share in the East Indian spice trade lured by India's profitable economic market.

In 1609, the company got a permanent charter, which continued former privileges and added authority to make peace or war with Indian princes. By 1615, the merchants combined as a single joint stock company, and planted the seeds for the beginning of a modern idea of shareholdings and dividends. Then, political control came gradually as residential governors began to establish the foundations of English justice, fixed land revenue in India. By the late 17th century, it was a well-organized monopoly company. In the process, it emerged as the most powerful private company in history. In 1813; the government abolished its monopoly of trade. In 1833, it was deprived of its rights to trade altogether. The company's army was passed to the crown, and with the expiry of the charter on June 1, 1874, the unusual East India Company met its closing stages.

1600 East India Company

1601 Jesuits establish mission in Beijing, China to provide contacts for the Portuguese and Dutch for access to native drug trafficking routes in the East. The Dutch negotiate an opium monopoly for northern India.

1602 Dutch East India Company  - East India Company Panama Papers

1603 Heavy outbreak of plague in England.

1606 London Company chartered to establish the Virgina Plantation on a communistic basis, and the Plymouth Company, whose descendants would control the New England business world.On 14 May 1607, the London Company established the Jamestown Settlement about 40 miles inland along the James River, a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay in present-day Virginia. The Virginia Company refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606 with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America. The two companies, called the "Virginia Company of London" (or the London Company) and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth" (or Plymouth Company) operated with identical charters but with differing territories. With the religious Pilgrims who arrived aboard the Mayflower, a successor company to the Plymouth Company eventually established a permanent settlement in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620 in what is now New England.  An area of overlapping territory was created within which the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. The Plymouth Company never fulfilled its charter, and its territory that later became New England was at that time also claimed by England. As corporations, the companies were empowered by the Crown to govern themselves, and they ultimately granted the same privilege to their colony. In 1624, the Virginia Company failed; however, its grant of self-government to the colony was not revoked, and, "either from apathy, indecision, or deliberate purpose," the Crown allowed the system to continue. The principle was thus established that a royal colony should be self-governing, and this formed the genesis of democracy in America.

1607 14 May The London Company established the Jamestown Settlement about 40 miles inland along the James River, a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay in present-day Virginia.​

1609 Henry Hudson (Englishman in service of the Dutch EIC) discovers the river Hudson and sails it up to Fort Oranje (Albany). Sponsored by the Dutch West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan. Much like English colonists in Virginia, however, the Dutch settlers did not take much of an interest in agriculture, and focused on the more lucrative fur trade [read opium trade]. In 1626, Director General Peter Minuit arrived in Manhattan, charged by the West India Company with the task of administering the struggling colony. Minuit "purchased" Manhattan Island from Native American Indians for the now legendary price of 60 guilders, formally established New Amsterdam, and consolidated and strengthened a fort located far up the Hudson River, named Fort Orange. The colony grew slowly, as settlers, responding to generous land-grant and trade policies, slowly spread north up the Hudson River.

1612 Tobacco planted in Virginia in American colonies. The London Company's Royal Charter was officially extended to include The Somers Isles as part of the Virginia Colony. However, in 1615, the isles passed to a separate company, the Somers Isles Company, which had been formed by the same shareholders as the London Company.

1615 A Dutch privateer named Joost van Dyk organised the first permanent settlements in the territory in Soper's Hole, on the west end of Tortola. It is not known precisely when he first came to the territory, but by 1615 van Dyk's settlement was recorded in Spanish contemporary records, noting its recent expansion. He traded with the Spaniards in Puerto Rico and farmed cotton and tobacco.

1616 Guyana The Dutch West Indian Company built a fort in 1616 on the Essequibo River. The Dutch traded with the Indian peoples and, as in Suriname, established sugar plantations worked by African slaves. While the coast remained under Dutch control, the English established plantations west of the Suriname River. Conflict between the two countries meant parts of the region changed hands a number of times, but by 1796 Britain had control of the region. The Netherlands ceded the colonies of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice to Britain in 1814.

1622 Under James I, the East India Company becomes a joint stock company.

1624  King James 1st dissolved the  London Company and made Virginia a royal colony.

The Dutch had begun regular trading with China from the early 1600s then they occupied Formosa (Taiwan) and turned it into a trade station to service their commercial interests in both Japan and China. They also used Formosa to provision ships sailing on the southern trade route to the Dutch East Indies.
The Dutch occupation infuriated the Chinese and it was from Ku Lang Hsu that the pirate warrior Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong), already in rebellion against the Ch'ing (Qing), marshalled his troops to recapture Formosa from the Dutch. Leaving Ku Lang Hsu in April 1661 with 25,000 troops, Koxinga defeated the Dutch in January 1662, liberated Formosa, and ended the 38-year occupation. However, foreign trade continued and in 1684 the Ch'ing established a Customs House in Amoy that welcomed first the Portuguese and then the British and by the early 1700s even the Dutch had returned on favorable terms.

1625 British, Dutch, and French as are on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands

1627 Francis Bacon writes The New Atlantis , which espouses the paradigm of a world university that scans the world for talented children in order to enrich the power of the state, because the state will know everything and be invincible. The book is widely read by Germans mystics.

1630 NEW YORK under the West India Company system The most successful patroonship was Rensselaerswyck, which was granted to the Amsterdam diamond merchant Kiliaen Van Rensselaer in 1629, and which came to extend over a million acres (400,000 hectares) in the area of present-day Albany, New York.

1630 - 1640s the Dutch Director Generals carried on a brutal series of campaigns against the area's Native Americans, largely succeeding in crushing the strength of the "River Indians," but also managing to create a bitter atmosphere of tension and suspicion between European settlers and Native Americans.
Notwithstanding the Spanish hostility, the Dutch West India Company still considered the Virgin Islands to have an important strategic value, as they were located approximately half way between the Dutch colonies in South America (now Suriname) and the most important Dutch settlement in North America, New Amsterdam (now New York City).

1632 First coffee shop opens in London.

1635 Tobacco sale in France restricted to apothecaries by doctor´s prescription only.

1638 Torture abolished in England.

1640 The DUTCH West India Company gave up its trade monopoly in New York (New Netherland).

Profits flowed to Amsterdam, encouraging new economic activity in the production of food, timber, tobacco, and eventually, slaves. In 1647, the most successful of the Dutch Director Generals arrived in New Amsterdam.   Peter Stuyvesant found New Netherland in disarray. The previous Director General's preoccupation with the Native Americans and border conflicts with the English in Connecticut had greatly weakened other portions of colonial society. Stuyvesant became a whirlwind of activity, issuing edicts, regulating taverns, clamping down on smuggling, and attempted to wield the authority of his office upon a population accustomed to a long line of largely ineffective Director Generals.
2/27/2015 NYPD Commissioner Bill Bratton Says Police Are Responsible for 'Worst Parts' of Black History
"Slavery, our country's original sin, sat on a foundation codified by laws and enforced by police, by slave catchers," Bratton said. He specifically pointed to Dutch settler Peter Stuyvesant, [ see Virgn Islands Financial Literacy Unit ] who came to New Amsterdam in 1664 and promptly formed a police department to help ensure the longevity of slavery. "Since then, the stories of police and Black citizens have intertwined again and again," he said. "The unequal nature of that relationship cannot and must not be denied."

1642 Income and Property Tax introduced in England.

1650 World population estimated 500 million.

1650 The European colony in Suriname was founded in the 1650s by Lord Francis Willoughby, the British governor of Barbados. This colony was captured by the Dutch under Abraham Crijnsen during the Second Anglo–Dutch War.

On July 31, 1667, under the Treaty of Breda the Dutch offered New Netherland (including New Amsterdam, modern-day New York City) in exchange for their sugar factories on the coast of Suriname. In 1683 Suriname was sold to the Dutch West India Company. The colony developed an agricultural economy based on African slavery. England controlled Suriname during the Napoleonic Wars from 1799 until 1816, when it was returned to the Dutch.

1651 The colonial Governor de Poincy purchased the island of St. Croix privately in 1651.

Then, in 1653, de Poincy made a gift of his possession to the Knights of Malta, and he himself remained as Governor. Twelve years later, in 1665, the Knights sold St. Croix to the French West India Company. The French Crown claimed the island and took possession in 1674. But, by 1695, France had lost interest in St. Croix and all French settlers were ordered to leave for Hispanola. For some unknown reason, they destroyed their buildings and burned their fields, altfiough they left their cattle behind. The best preserved ruin from French days is at Judith's Fancy.

1650 Extermination of North American Indian people begins.

1652 Upon his nomination as governor of Curaçao, Peter Stuyvesant tried his utmost to limit the Jews' rights.

1657 Chocolate drinking introduced in London.

1658 First bank note introduced in Sweden.

1660 Dutch (Boers) settle in South Africa.

1660 British pass the Navigation Act

to prevent transport of sugar, tobacco, or any product of the American Colonies to any port outside England, Ireland and British possessions. British find sugar pushing so profitable it becomes a matter of national security
The English Navigation Acts (1650-1673) were a series of laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England (after 1707 Great Britain) and its colonies, which started in 1651. Their goal was to force colonial development into lines favorable to England, and stop colonial trade with the Netherlands and France. On the whole, the Acts of Trade and Navigation were obeyed, except for the Molasses Act of 1733, which led to extensive smuggling because no effective means of enforcement was provided until the 1750s.
The Navigation Act of 1660 continued the policies set forth in the 1651 act and enumerated certain articles-sugar, tobacco, cotton, wool, indigo, and ginger-that were to be shipped only to England or an English province. In effect, these acts created serious reductions in the trade of many North Carolina planters and merchants. To continue intercolonial trade, the colonies resorted to smuggling, particularly Albemarle County in North Carolina, the chief producer and exporter of tobacco, which carried on a profitable trade with the Massachusetts and Rhode Island colonies. The violations of the Navigation Acts led to passage of the Plantation Duty Act of 1673,

1661 Charles II in England, in an attempt to retain his throne, grants the East India Company the power to make war.

1662 Britain importing 16 million pounds of sugar per year.

1664 Descartes advances the concept that activities of organisms (including man) are because of a reaction to external stimuli. One of the initial premises of future mind control paradigms.

1665 London swept by bubonic plague. It was noticed that people who lived without sugar escaped harm. Over 68,000 die.

1665 Newton experiments with gravitation.

1666 Great Fire of London.

1667 The apparent danger of using animals serums foreign to human beings and animal serums foreign to other animals is reported in medical literature in 1667 when lambs blood was unsuccessfully used as a human blood transfusion.(Sir Graham Wilson, The Hazards of Immunization, London 1967, Athlone Press).

1667 Epidemics of smallpox, dysentary begin.

1668 Merck begins an apothecary shop in Darmstadt Germany.

1669 Outbreak of cholera in China.

1670 Measles and tertian fever epidemics displace cholera.

1672 Dysentary becomes mild and some smallpox occurs.

1672 The Danes -- The commercial Danish West India and Guinea Company settled Dutch Virgin Islands a colony on St Thomas, island (USVI) first in 1672, expanded to St John in 1683, and finally bought St Croix from the French West Indies Company in 1733. In 1754, these islands were sold to the Danish king, Frederik V as royal Danish colonies. Sugar cane, produced by slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries.

Danish Forts (in North America)
1672, Built at Charlotte Amelie. Fort Christian Garrison, St Thomas Island, West Indies
1718, Garrisoned to protected colony at Coral Bay St John; 1733, Captured by slaves. Fort Frederick Garrison, Virgin Islands, West Indie
1749, Built at Christiansted; 1771, Rebuilt; 1917, US Takeover. Fort Christiansvaern Garrison, St Croix Island, West Indies
1751, Built at Frederiksted. Fort Frederick Garrison, St Croix Island, West Indies

1673 Inoculation against smallpox appears in Denmark. (See 1778).

1674 First mention of diabetes mellitus in British Pharmaceutice Rationalis, by Thomas Willis, member of the Royal College of Physicians.

1675 Malaria epidemic in England and discovery of Peruvian bark” (quinine).

1677 Ice cream becomes popular dessert in Paris.

1678 First medical treatise in America on smallpox and measles.

1683 First German emigrants to America land.

1690 John Locke writes “Concerning Human Understanding”. One of the crucial elements of the essay is the belief and concept that children are tabula erasa ie., totally programmable. The idea was immediately taken up by the upper class in Europe and the United States, and it would become a cognitive foundation for the idea of “the emergence of a strong state”, in terms of “programming an analytical systems substructure” - the substructure being the children who , under this paradigm, are entities to be possessed and controlled - paradigm that would persist for 400 years.

1692 Salem witch trial executions in New England.

1693 National Debt begins in England.

1694 Bank of England founded.

1695 Royal Bank of Scotland founded. University of Berlin founded.

1695 Paris and Rome experience ferocious epidemics of Pertussis.

1696 First English property insurance company founded.

1698 Tax on beards in Russia instituted.

1699 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1700 From 1700 to 1830, the East India Company would gain control of India and wrestle control of the opium monopoly.

1700 British Isles importing 20 million pounds of sugar per year.

1700 Deaths from tuberculosis increase dramatically in England and other sugar consuming countries as the body environment changes to accommodate it. 1700 Refined sugar is the most important export of France.

1702 First appearance of yellow fever in the United States. It would appear 35 times between 1702 and 1800 and would appear almost every year between 1800 and 1879.

1709 Plague in Turkey, Russia, Scandinavia and Germany through 1710.

1712 First record of vaccinations for smallpox in France.

1715 British East India Company opens its first trading office in Canton; China begins trading in opium.

1717 Inoculation against smallpox instituted in England by Lady Mary Montague after she returns from Turkey, where it was in a popular experimental stage at the time

1718 First bank notes in England.

1719 Outbreak of the plague in Marseilles, France through 1720.

1720 British government issues instruction that American colony governors consent to no Act emitting Bills of Credit.

1721 In the United States, a clergyman named Cotton Mather attempts to introduce a crude form of smallpox vaccination by smearing smallpox pus into scratches in healthy people. Over 220 people are treated during the first six months of experimentation. Only six had no apparent reaction. Mather was bitterly attacked for recommending this practice. Boston, Massachusetts.

1722 In Wales, a Dr. Wright refers to inoculation against smallpox in the British Isles as “an ancient practice”. A citizen of Wales, 99 years old, states that inoculation had been known and used during his entire lifetime, and that his mother stated it was common during her life, and that she got smallpox through her inoculation.

1723 Johann Peter Rockefeller arrives in the US colonies from Germany.

1723 First record of smallpox immunization in Ireland, when a doctor in Dublin inoculates 25 people. Three died, and the custom was briefly abandoned.

1724 First record of vaccination for smallpox in Germany. It soon fell into disfavor due to the number of deaths. Years later, doctors were able to reintroduce it. 1727 Coffee planted in Brazil.

1728 Madrid Lodge of Freemasons founded.

1729 Emperor Yung Cheng prohibits opium smoking in China.

1730 Zinc smelting begins in England.

1733 Molasses Act of 1733 passed by Britain, putting a heavy tax on sugar and molasses coming from anywhere except the British sugar islands in the Caribbean. Sugar was also essential for production of rum (alcohol), to which a significant percentage of humans were already addicted. Tobacco, (nicotine) begins to gain more significance in world use.

1734 Masonry introduced to the Netherlands.

1735 Masonry introduced to Portugal, Italy and Russia.

1737 Masonry introduced to Germany.

1737 Hume´s Treatise on Human Nature is published.

1740 Smallpox epidemic in Berlin. University of Pennsylvania founded.

1741 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1747 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1750 Dutch shipping more than 100 tons of opium per year to Indonesia.

1750 Scandinavia experiences a 15 year epidemic of Pertussis (whooping cough) which takes 45,000 lives.

1753 Vienna Stock Exchange founded.

1754 Inoculation for smallpox introduced in Rome. The practice was soon stopped because of the number of deaths it caused. Later, the medical profession would successfully reintroduce it.

1757 Bengal made a British Crown Colony, and Britain expands its trafficking in Opium.

1762 Philadelphia epidemic of yellow fever.

1763 Epidemic of smallpox in France wipes out a large part of the population. It was immediately attributed to inoculation, and the practice was prohibited by the French government for five years.

1763 The first recorded episode of biological warfare in the United States occurs when white colonial settlers give smallpox-infected blankets to Native Americans who sought friendly relations. Also a significant case of genocide.

1764 Britain prohibits American colonies from issuing their own currency.

1768 The medical profession in France is successful in re-instituting vaccination for smallpox.

1770 Emile is written by Rosseau. The work parallel the work of Locke in 1690, but Russeaus work won the attentions of the Prussian Empire (Germans), essentially a synthetic state founded on a religious principle, due to the fact that Prussians were the subject of a religious war and Crusade by the Pope.

1770 Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Hegel born in Germany.

1770 Stephen Crane took over Massachusetts’ first paper mill

1771 Encyclopaedia Britannica first assembled in London.

1733, Danish West Indies:
St. Croix differentiation between slaves and other property was implied by a regulation that stated that slaves had their own will and thus could behave inappropriately or be disobedient. The regulation also stated that the authorities were to punish slaves for participating in illegal activity, but many owners punished slaves on their own. There was a general consensus that if the slaves were punished too hard or were malnourished, the slaves would start to rebel.
In 1755 Frederick V of Denmark issued more new Regulations, in which slaves were guaranteed the right not to be separated from their children and the right to medical support during periods of illness or old age. However, the colonial government had the ability to amend laws and regulations according to local conditions, and thus the regulations were never enacted in the colony, on grounds that it was more disadvantageous than advantageous.  By 1778, it was estimated that the Danish were bringing about 3,000 Africans to the Danish West Indies yearly for enslavement.

1774 First Continental Congress convened, Sept 5, 1774.

1774 Scheele discovers Chlorine gas.

1775 King George issues his Proclamation of Rebellion.

1775 Continental Congress authorizes respective states to issue paper currency in defiance of Britain. The British respond by printing counterfeit money and flooding the US with it.

1776 Adam Weishaupt infiltrates the Bavarian Masonic Lodges. The doctrine of the Illuminati encompasses: abolition of ordered government, private property, inheritance, nationalism, family, religion, marriage, morality and communal education of children.

1776 Roughly 85% of citizens in the United States have independent livelihoods.

1776 American colonies of Britain declare their independence from Britain.

1776 Adam Smith writes The Wealth of Nations, setting forth British policy to maintain the American colonies as backward raw material producers and the mandate to expand the opium trade.

1777 Nathan Rothschild born. Weishaupt joins the Munich Masonic Lodge, and within two years would be in control of the lodge of Theodore of Good Counsel.

1778 Danish physicians move to open two major vaccination houses in Denmark, by order of the King.

1778 In Italy, infants were inoculated by Neapolitan nurses without the knowledge of parents.

1778 Act of Congress prohibits importation of slaves into US.

1779 American recalls its currency to counteract the effect of undermining by Britain.

1780 United States has two interest bearing banks.

1780 Eclectic Alliance used until 1784 to covert Masonic lodges to Illuminism.

1780 Adam Weishaupts Order of the Illuminati at the University of Ingolstadt has 60 members in five German cities by 1780, but the impact of his ideas extends much farther in society. Weishaupt and others desired to attach themselves to Masonic lodges in Europe and America. In 1780, Weishaupt recruits Adolf Franscis (Baron Knigge), which allowed the hierarchical structure of the Order to expand to completion. Weishaupt sought absolute obedience to him and other influential members of the order, and worked for the overthrow of church and state authorities who were seen as blocks to Illuminati progress. Knigge completes the system of initiation, and membership swells to 300. Competition arises between Weishaupt and Knigge.

1781 American Congress meets for the first time. The Bank of North America founded, modeled after the Bank of England. Never recognized by the majority of states. Bank of North America folded in 1790.

1781 Massachusetts Medical Society incorporated.

1782 Masonic Congress at Wilhelmsbad. Knigge enrolls virtually all of the members attending over to Weishaupt´s Order, which depleted potential members for the rival Order of Strict Observance.

1782 Original Great Seal of the United States adopted.

1783 Baring Brothers become premier merchant of the opium trade.

1783 Because of Weishaupts power and arrogance, complaints begin to surface that the Order was subversive of political and religious authority, the schools and the press. In October of 1783, a disgruntled member of the order, Joseph Utzschneider, denounces Wesihaupt to the duchess Maria Anna of Bavaria, who in turn speaks to Carl Theodore, the Bavarian king.

1783 US President John Hanson dies.

1783 At the time, increased global demand for tea was one of the primary reasons for a shortage of silver; this was the only currency that the Chinese, sole producers of the commodity at the time, would accept in payment. The East India Company (EIC), monopoly suppliers of tea to the English market, got around the problem by indirect sales of opium (grown on their plantations in India) to the Chinese, the proceeds from which they used to pay for tea.
The Americans meanwhile, also needed silver to finance their burgeoning international trade in furs, timber and other commodities. They too looked to the Chinese market as a source of hard currency based on their monopoly of the opium trade in Turkey. The man who would become America's first consul in China, Bostonian and former Continental Army officer Samuel Shaw (1754–1794) arrived in the port of Canton (now Guangzhou) in 1784 aboard the converted privateer Empress of China. The "Chinese Queen", as the vessel was known, under the command of Captain John Green carried a cargo of silver specie and ginseng for trade.
In Canton, the Americans encountered many European nations already trading under the Canton System, including the English, Dutch, French, and Danish. Shaw subsequently negotiated the sale of the Empress‍‍ '​‍s cargo and earned a substantial profit. As well as symbolizing a breach of the British East India Company’s tea monopoly, successful and lucrative voyage of the Empress inspired other American merchants to follow suit with the desire to enter a new market with great potential for profit. 
Two years after the voyage of the Empress, Shaw set up the firm of Shaw & Randall to advise American firms unfamiliar with trade in the Far East. Boston Brahmin Thomas Handasyd Perkins of Perkins & Co., the dominant American presence in the Turkish opium business, along with one of his partners and his 16‑year-old nephew John Perkins Cushing, subsequently opened operations in Canton, where Russell & Co. had become the most important American opium dealer. The founders of Russell & Co., Samuel Russell and Philip Ammedon, had set up in the Chinese city in 1808, buying opium at auction from the EIC in Bombay, which they then shipped clandestinely to Canton on the south coast of China. By 1827 Russell and Co. has become the largest American opium dealer in China, competing in the market alongside British firms including Jardine, Matheson & Co. and Dent & Co.. Of all the American firms, only Olyphant & Co. and one other abstained from the opium trade.

1784 Bavarian Illuminati (Wesihaupt) membership is 3000, which effectively knocks out competition from the Strict Observance and Rosicrucian orders. Knigge withdraws from Wesihaupts Order of the Illuminati.

1784 US President Lee in office.

1784 In Bavaria, king Carl Theodore outlaws secret societies (June 1784).

1785 Carl Theodore issues another edict specifically outlawing Wesihaupt´s Order of Immunati, as well as providing rewards for information on them. Weishaupt flees to a neighboring province, as does Count Massenhausen. 

1785 Columbus Lodge of Order of Illuminati established in New York City. Press gives criticism to US President John Hanson.

1785 Watt introduces steam engine in England.

1786 In Bavaria, the home of Xavier Zwack, one of Weishaupts members of the Order, is raided by the government. Many books and papers of the Illuminati are found. The home of Zwacks´ friend, Baron Bassus, is also raided and other papers are seized.

1787 British Secretary of State Dundas proposes that Britain storm China and create more of an opium market to suppress the Chinese people.

1787 The duke of Bavaria issues a final edict against the Order of the Illuminati.

1787 Dollar currency first introduced in the United States.

1788 Constitutional amendment ratified that limited the power of the government and ensured money was backed by precious metal.

1789 French Revolution begins. It would last until 1799.

1789 Knights of Malta defeated by Napoleon.

1789 Epidemic of influenza in New England through 1790.

1789 Constitution of the United States ratified. George Washington maintains a vast plantation growing marijuana (hemp).

1789 George Washington, a mason, becomes President of the United States, following the terms of Presidents Hanson, Boudinot, Mifflin, Lee, Gorham, Griffin and St. Clair.

1790 Merchant Networks Timelines
The official establishment of a Secret Committee of the EICo, which secret committee had existed unofficially before. The EICo had a staff of 16 at Canton.

1790 Baverian police harass Illuminati members.

1790 Washington DC founded. First patent law in US established.

1790 Edward Jenner buys a medical degree from St.Andrews University for £15.

1791 Edward Jenner vaccinates his 18 month old son with swine-pox. In 1798, he vaccinates his son with cow-pox. His son will die of TB at the age of 21.

1791 First Bank of the United States chartered. Creation of Hamilton and chartered for 20 years.

1792 Anti-Saccharite Society forms in Europe to protest effect of sugar on people. It induces a British sugar boycott through Europe. The British East India companies, already involved with opium drug trafficking, uses the slavery issue for an advertising campaign “East India sugar not made by slaves”, for its sugar trafficking.

December 15, 1764 - January 11, 1854 Colonel Thomas Handasyd Perkins or T. H. Perkins
As a young man he was a slave trader in Haiti, a Maritime Fur Trader, OPIUM SMUGGLER trading furs from the American Northwest to China, and then a major smuggler of Turkish opium into China. His parents were James Perkins and Elizabeth Peck.

1793 Epidemic of influenza in New England.

1793 Major epidemic of yellow fever in the United States in Philadelphia, the social, political and financial center of the country. It would soon spread to other states through 1796.

1796 Edward Jenner in Gloucestershire, England credited with concept of vaccination. Jenner vaccinates an 8 year old boy with smallpox pus. Jenner would vaccinate the boy 20 times. The boy would die from TB at the age of 20.

1796 Edict of Peking forbids import of opium into China.

1798 General vaccine programs against cowpox instituted in the US.

1798 John Robison publishes Proofs of a Conspiracy in which he describes 84 German masonic lodges and says that the Illuminati still work covertly behind the scenes. Copy is received by George Washington.

1798 Publication of Augustin Barruels “Memoirs of Jacobianism”. Barruel comes to similar conclusions as Robison, that when the Illuminati was outlawed it went underground and resurfaced as an organization called the German Union, which played a role in creating the French Revolution in 1789. This thesis is later discussed in 1918 with Stauffer´s New England and the Bavarian Illuminati. Knigge was allegedly involved with both the German Union and the Eclectic Alliance, which was used as a cover for converting Masonic lodges to Illuminism between 1780 and 1784.

1798 Emigration to Canada begins.

1799 George Washington dies. With his death Masons were again trusted, and the controversy about the Illuminati faded.

1800 - 1890

1800 United States has 200 interest bearing banks.

1800 Benjamin Waterhouse at Harvard University introduces vaccination in Massachusetts.

1800 British sugar consumption reaches 160 million pounds per year.

1801 First widespread experimentation with vaccines begins.

1802 The British government gives Edward Jenner £10,000 for continued experimentation with “smallpox vaccine.” The paradigm that vaccines provide “lifetime immunity” is abandoned, and the concept of “revaccination” is sanctioned.

1805 Rockets introduced as weapons in Britain.

1805 Morphine isolated by Sarturner.

1806 Napoleon defeats Prussia (Germany) at the battle at Jena, causing Prussia to realize that their defeat, they believed, was due to soldiers thinking only about themselves during time of stress in battle. Prussia then took the principles set forth by Rosseau and Locke and created a new three-tier educational system. The Prussian philosopher Fichte, in his Address to the German People, states that the children will be taken over and told what to think and how to think it.

1807 French abolish slave trade by law.

1807 England prohibits slave trade.

1809 Albert Pike born in Boston, Massachusetts.

1809 Massachusetts encourages its towns to make provision for the vaccination of inhabitants with cow pox vaccinae.

1810 Hahnemann founds homeopathy.

1810 The London Medical Observer (Vol.VI, 1810) publishes particulars of “535 cases of smallpox after vaccination, 97 fatal cases of smallpox after vaccination and 150 cases of serious injury from vaccination, ten of whom were medical men.”

1810 Krupp works open in Germany.

1811 Demise of the First National Bank.

1812 The War of 1812 with England. Treasury issues notes to finance war.

1812 Alfred Krupp, German arms manufacturer, born.

1812 Napoleon awards Legion of Honor to Benjamin Dellesert for discovering how to process the beet into sugar (which replaces dependence on the sugar cane).

St. Croix USVI Danish West Indies Now the U.S. Virgin Islands

St. Croix U.S.V.I was the biggest sugar producing country in the world.

1811 Judah Philip Benjamin, born a British subject in 1811 in Saint Croix, to Phillip Benjamin, an English Sephardi Jew, and his wife, Rebecca de Mendes, a Sephardi Jew from Spain. 

This was during the period of British occupation of the Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands). His father was a first cousin and business partner of Moses Elias Levy, father of future Florida senator David Levy Yulee. Judah Philip Benjamin emigrated with his parents to the U.S. in 1813,  and became a citizen. the family first lived in Wilmington, North Carolina. In 1822, they moved to Charleston, South Carolina, where his father was among the founders, with Isaac Harby.
At the age of fourteen, he entered Yale College. He left without completing the degree and read the law. According to one account, Benjamin was expelled from Yale, although the reason was not officially disclosed. An American politician and lawyer who served in cabinet level positions in the Confederate States of America, including Secretary of War and Secretary of State. He later became a citizen of the Confederate States of America. After the collapse of the Confederacy, Benjamin moved to England, where he established a second legal career. He sold his plantation and its 150 slaves in 1850. In U.S. politics, Benjamin was a member of the Louisiana House of Representatives; in 1852, he was elected by the state legislature to the US Senate from Louisiana, the second Jewish senator in U.S. history (after David Levy
In 1854, President Franklin Pierce offered him nomination to a seat on the Supreme Court, which he declined for a second time. Had he accepted in either instance he would have been the first Jewish justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. As it was it would not be for another 62 years until 1916 when Louis Brandeis became the first Jewish justice of the Supreme Court following his nomination by President Woodrow Wilson. Following the formation of the Confederate States of America in 1861, he was appointed by President Jefferson Davis to three different Cabinet posts in his administration. Benjamin was the first Jewish appointee to a Cabinet position in a North American government. Davis appointed Benjamin to be the first Attorney General of the Confederacy on February 25, 1861.

1812 France has mass planting of sugar beets and 500 refineries open. Over 8 million pounds of sugar are produced in one year.

1812 Death rate from TB in New York 700:100,000.

1814 Suspension of Gold and Silver payments.

1814 American Edward Everett goes to Prussia (Germany) to get his doctorate degree, returns to the United States and evntually becomes governor of Massachusetts.

1815 Income tax ends in England. Resumes in 1842.

1816 Britain passes an act which outlawed brewers from possession of sugar or molasses, since brewers had been adulterating their product with sugar.

1817 Second National Bank established.

1819 Prussian (German) law makes education compulsory.

The Humboldt brothers, Stein and others divide German society into three distinct groups:
(1) those who will be policy makers who are taught to think ( .5 %),
(2) those who will be engineers, lawyers ,doctors who are taught to partially think (5.5%) and
(3) the children of the masses (94%), who were to learn obedience and how to follow orders.
The school of the masses (volkschulen) divided whole ideas into subjects which did not exist previously .

The result was that people would (1) think what someone else told them to think about,(2) when to think it ,(3) how long to think about it ,(4) when to stop thinking about it, and (5) when to think of something else. This way, no one in the masses would know anything that´s really going on. (Although brilliant, the system is inherently negative in nature - it would lead eventually to German mind control paradigms in the late 19th and 20th century. The system also weakens or breaks the link between the child and the capacity to read (cross-assimilation creating whole ideas) by replacing the alphabet system of teaching reading with a system of teaching sounds, (breaking into smaller units). The same paradigm relative to reading is currently injected into US Society by the Peabody Foundation, who imposed a northern system of schooling on the US South between 1865 and 1918. The system in the northern US is the Prussian system. Over 48% of the soldiers in the American revolution against the British, on both the American and British sides, were Prussian (German) mercenaries.

1822 The British government advances Edward Jenner another £20,000 for “smallpox vaccine” experimentation. Jenner suppresses reports which indicate his concept his causing more death than saving lives.

1822 From about 1822, for the next 30 years, a stream of Americans go to Prussia (Germany) and bring the educational system back to the United States.

1823 Samuel Russell, second cousin to Skull & Bones founder William H. Russell, establishes Russell & Company.
Its business was to acquire opium from Turkey and smuggle it into China, where it was prohibited, under the armed protection of the British.

1824 Justus von Leibig discovers properties of bitter almond (laetrile) and benzaldehyde.

1824 John Q. Adams elected president of the United States. Silicon discovered.

  • 1826 M.Taveau in France invents mercury amalgam fillings.
  • 1826 Cholera epidemic begins in India.
  • 1827 Aluminum is discovered.
  • 1828 Radiactive element Thorium is discovered. Anti-Masonic party established.

1829 Smithsonian Institution founded in Washington DC.

1830 Adam Weishaupt dies.

1830 Russell & Company buys out the Perkins opium syndicate, which had created the wealth of the Cabot, Lowell, Higginson, Forbes, Cushing and Sturgis family. Russell makes Connecticut the primary center of the US opium racket. Massachusetts families (Coolidge, Sturgis, Forbes and Delano) joined Connecticut (Alsop) and New York (Low) trafficking families under the auspices of the Russell Company and the British.

  • 1830 Export of nitrates from Chile begins.

1830 Britain imports 18,956 chests of opium to China. Opium becomes the largest commodity in world trade. Element Vanadium is discovered.

June 20 1832, with symbolism bordering on the vulgar, two English sailors from The Lord Amherst shouldered open the locked entrance gates of the major public building in Shanghai so that their commander could present a petition demanding that the city be opened to British trade.

1831 Georg Hegel dies. German philosopher who gave rise to the Hegelian Dialectic: Thesis (create the crisis) Anti-thesis (Offer the Solution) which is the basis of globalist elite manipulation paradigms. The synthesis achieved becomes a symptomatic reponse instead of addressing the real cause (Gov´t). The World Order organizes and finances Jewish groups, anti-Jewish groups, Communist groups, anti-Communist groups, and other “opposing” social forces to create predetermined outcomes ensuring power maintenance.

  • 1831 Cholera epidemic spreads from Russia to Central Europe.
  • 1831 Smallpox epidemic in Wurtemberg, Germany, where 995 vaccinated people succumb to the disease.
  • 1831 In Marseilles, France, 2000 vaccinated people are stricken with smallpox.

1832 The Skull & Bones is launched under the Russell pirate flag.

1832 Andrew Jackson re-elected. Vetos recharter of Bank of US. National debt of the US falls to zero.

  • 1832 British Medical Association chartered. Impetus for forming AMA in U.S.
  • 1832 Christian Hahnemann creates school of homeopathy.

1832 East India Company monopoly of opium trafficking expires.

1832 Jackson veto of re-charter of Second National Bank.

1833 British drop slave trade as unprofitable and issue Emancipation order.

1833 Andrew Jackson orders that US funds be withdrawn from the Bank of the United States.

  • 1833 Mercury amalgam fillings introduced in NYC. Dentists rebelled.

1834 Giuseppe Mazzini appointed as Illuminati director worldwide. Thomas Malthus dies.

1834 Mazzini appoints Albert Pike to head Illuminati operations in the US.

1834 Pope Leo 13th has the headquarters of the Knights of Malta moved to Rome.

  • 1835 First availability of powerful compound microscopes after the perfection of the achromatic objective lens between 1815 and 1830.

1836 Charter of the “Bank of the US” expires.

1836 Britain imports 30,000 chests of opium to China.

1836 First recorded case of the use of psychiatry to suppress dissent in Russia.

1837 Crisis of 1837. All banks suspend specie payment. 600 banks fail. Banks that charge interest expanding rapidly.

1837 J.P. Morgan born.

1838 Smallpox epidemic in England.

1839 Chinese burn 3,000 tons of opium, to the relief of oversupplied British traders.

1839 John D. Rockefeller born.

1839 First time a disease is traced to a parasitic organism. (Schoenlein, fungal infection of scalp).

1840 Roughly 70% of citizens in the US have independent livelihoods. (See 1776).

1840 Baltimore Dental College graduates swore not to use mercury amalgam.

1840 Albert Pike builds a mansion in Arkansas where he designs plans for three world wars and three revolutions. Pike becomes Mazzini´s superior.

1840 First Opium War in China, as Chinese protest British import of drugs.

1841 Clinton Roosevelt writes “The Science of Government Founded on Natural Law”, outlining the Illuminati plans for the regimentation of mankind under the control of the “enlightened ones” and the destruction of the Constitution.

1842 Treaty of Nanking brings Britain vast wealth and control over Hong Kong.

1842 Salt wells in Pennsylvania found to have oil. William Rockefeller exploits and begins buying up land in Pennsylvania.

1843 Port of Shanghai opened to foreign trade. The first lot in the port is rented by Britains Jardine Mathieson & Co. Other lots are rented by Samuel Russell, an American representing Baring Brothers. Captain Warren Delano (FDRs grandfather) becomes a member of the Canton Regatta Club, and enters into dealings with the Hong Society. Delano founds his fortune on opium trafficking into China, and later becomes the first vice chairman of the US Federal Reserve Board.

1844 Joint Stock Companies Act, a piece of legislation effectively marking the birth of modern capitalism.

Followed by the Limited Liability Act of 1855, it established that the fiduciary duty of a director is to act in good faith for the benefit of the company as a whole, ie all shareholders. In practice, this means that what is referred to as the shareholder primacy norm obliges companies to maximise their profits without regard to other considerations. So claims by companies that they are driven by values enshrined in concepts of corporate social responsibility or fair trade should be seen for what they are – public relations exercises designed to attract custom that will ultimately enhance their bottom line.  Even the Tories’ favourite economist, Adam Smith, denounced the size, nature and privileges associated with corporations, and we should heed what he said. Nothing less than a dismantling and revision of the legal framework underpinning private enterprise will serve to alleviate the exploitation, abuses and environmental degradation that it brings but, as Mr Monbiot says, the political class and our so-called democracy is part of the problem rather than the solution.

1844 Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane founded. American stores giving a half pound of sugar free with purchase of five dollars or more.

1846 Nucleus of physicians in New York form the American Medical Association.

1846 Over 117,000 Chinese laborers brought to Western United States, feeding an imported opium trade estimated at 285,000 pounds per year into the US.

1846 Independent US Treasury established.

1846 Former slaves in Caribbean left to manage old sugar plantations - a situation that would last until sugar plantations would eventually be taken over by the United States.

1847 American Medical Association (AMA) organized in the US.

1848 Rockefeller interests establish prime goal of control of US medical system.

1848 Karl Marx Communist Manifesto created. Proposes: abolition of private property in land (through gradually increasing property tax), heavy progressive or graduated income tax, abolition of inheritance rights (inheritance tax), confiscation of private property, a central bank, forced distribution of population and centralization of transportation and communication in the hands of the state.

1848 Immigration from Ireland to the United States. United States news media spread the word that “one third carried a copy of the Manifesto” in order to help enforce the spread of compulsory schooling for “native” Americans.

1848 California Gold Rush.

  • 1848 Dr. Semmel Weis at the University of Vienna Medical School cuts infant deaths by requiring doctors to wash their hands. Subsequently fired.

1849 William A Rockefeller indicted for raping a hired girl. William also bills himself as a “cancer specialist” and sells petroleum based products as elixir.

1850 Two states in the United States, Massachusetts and New York, create an active paradigm that says “the state is the father of children” and create laws to cause a social phasing out of “blood family” loyalty and a phasing in of “loyalty to state”. The two states create adoption law.

  • 1850 Homeopathic college founded in Cleveland, Ohio.
  • 1850 US prison population is 29:100,000 (Ratio 29 per 100,000).

The Charmer, China Trade Clipper Ship launched 1854

Colonel Thomas Handasyd Perkins Colonel Thomas Handasyd Perkins, or T. H. Perkins (December 15, 1764 - January 11, 1854) As a young man he was a slave trader in Haiti, a Maritime Fur Trader, trading furs from the American Northwest to China, and then a major smuggler of Turkish opium into China. His parents were James Perkins and Elizabeth Peck.

1859 The period from 1859 to 1931 is defined by historian Carroll Quigley as the historical stage of Financial Capitalism, where a system of worldwide financial control would be set up in private hands to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the planet as a whole.

1850 British physician reads a paper detailing microscopic examination of food products to the Botanical Society of London. The paper revealed that all food products examined in Britain were adulterated with foreign substances, including chemicals. Hearings periodically held for decades.

1850 Germany experiences a new scientific paradigm, psychophysics, which maintains that people are similar to complex machines. The paradigm further leads to that of experimental psychology in order to discover the nature of humans and how to program them. In Germany, Wundt is the primary proponent of these ideas. American elite begin to come to Germany to study the paradigm.

1853 Cecil Rhodes born.

  • 1853 Dr. Isaac Brown, a prominent British surgeon and president of the Medical Society of London, creates a surgical procedure to remove the clitoris from women on the grounds that “masturbation caused epilepsy and convulsive diseases.”
  • 1853 Smallpox epidemic in England.
  • 1853 In England, the Compulsory Vaccination Act . From 1853 to 1860, vaccination reached 75% of the live births and more than 90% of the population.
  • 1853 Chloroform first used as anesthetic in England.
  • 1853 First use of hypodermic needle for subcutaneous injection.

1854 German watchmaker Heinrich Goebel invents first light bulb.

  • 1855 Compulsory nature of Massachusetts vaccination statute firm, and a pre- condition for school admittance. Statutes created in the belief it would “protect children from smallpox.”
  • 1855 New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal sports an editorial which declares that “masturbation is the destroying element of civilized society.”
  • 1855 Outbreak of cholera in England.

1856 Daniel Coit Gilman, Andrew White and Timothy Dwight set up the Yale Trust to finance the Skull & Bones organization at Yale University. White would become first president of Cornell University and US ambassador to Russia (1892) and US Ambassador to Germany (1897-1902). White advised Herbert Hoover to set up the Hoover Institution. Gilman trained John Dewey, who would help him dominate American education in the 20th century. Gilman also trained Richard Ely, who in turn trained Woodrow Wilson (who gave the Federal Reserve System to the United States, the income tax and WWI.) All three of the men who set up the Yale Trust were educated at the University of Berlin, where they were indoctrinated with Hegelian Deteriminism, which states that everyone must be controlled to achieve predetermined goals.

1856 John Stuart Mill (On Liberty) becomes secretary of the East India Company. A disciple of Mill, David Ricardo, originated the Theory of Rents. His descendant, Rita Ricardo, married to Wesley Campbell (head of the Hoover Institution) would advise President Ronald Reagan on Social Security.

  • 1857 Vaccination in England enforced by fines. Smallpox epidemic begins in England that lasts until 1859. Over 14,000 die.

1858 Second Opium War lasts until 1860 in China. British establish Hong Kong and Shanghai corporations to act as clearinghouse for drug transactions.

  • 1858 England experiences a 7 year epidemic of Pertussis (ending in 1865) in which 120,000 die.

1859 Stampede into the oil fields of Pennsylvania. Property prices skyrocket and the Rockefellers begin to make their fortune in oil.

1859 Darwins Origin of the Species is published.

1860 Treaty of Tientsin allows Britain control of 7/8 of China trade. British and French lay seige to Beijing and burn temples and shrines.

1860 Introduction of anti-biotics and immunization into the US. (Thru 1896).

1860 British import 58,681 chests of opium to China.

1860 United States Government begins a 30 year period of genocide against native American Indians in order to acquire land. Hundreds of thousands of people are rounded up, killed, or relocated to outdoor concentration camps (reservations).

  • 1860 Encyclopaedia Brittanica (8th Edition) states “nothing is more likely to prove hurtful to the cause of vaccination and render the public careless of securing to themselves its benefits, than the belief that they would require to submit to re-vaccination every 10 to 15 years”. Later, in the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the policy would change: “it is desirable that vaccination should be repeated at the age of 7 to 10 years, and thereafter at intervals during life”.

1860 Abraham Lincoln elected as President of the United States.

1860 Senate Report on Crime in Washington DC.

1860 Electric storage battery invented and Cesium is discovered.

1860 Food and Drug Act in England established.

1861 US Civil War begins. Morgans, Armours and Vanderbilts make a fortune from the conflict.

1861 Bank Panic of 1861. Banks refuse to loan US money.

1861 United States introduces passport system.

1862 Act of 1862 authorizes the issuance of 150 million in legal tender US notes, later known as “Lincoln Greenbacks”. Other issuances in 1862 and 1863 amount to a total of 450 million. Bankers receive no interest from this and plot revenge. An article in the London Times advises that the US government most be destroyed lest it become prosperous beyond precedent.

1862 Abraham Lincoln outlaws the trade in Chinese coolies (laborer/slaves).

1863 Gatling gun invented.

1863 National Banking Act passed by British sympathizers, authorizing a private corporation to issue US money. Protested by Lincoln. Currency issued by depositing “government bonds” with the US Treasury. Bonds are secured by a first lien on all physical property within the nation and a first lien on national income.

1863 Congress taxes private banknotes out of existence.

1863 National Academy of Sciences founded in Washington DC.

1863 Lincoln´s Emancipation Proclamation frees 3 million slaves in the US.

  • 1863 Second major epidemic of smallpox in England lasts until 1865. 20,000 die.

1864 The Long Walk of the Navajos.

1864 Pasteur invents pasteurization process for wine.

1864 Dozens of oil refineries spring up in Cleveland, Ohio.

1864 British opium trafficking produces £20 million from China in 1864.

1865 With the end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery by the Thirteenth Amendment [called The Title of Nobility Amendment] and ratified 1865, the Confederate states sought readmission to the Union and to Congress. Under Article I, section 2 of the Constitution, a slave had been counted as 3/5ths of a person for purposes of representation. Because of the abolition of slavery, Southern states expected a substantial increase in their representation in the House of Representatives.

The idea of "corporations are people" was slipped into the 14th amendment when at the same time they freed the slaves, ironically enslaving us all.

The Fourteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress in 1866 and ratified by the states in 1868.
It reflected Republican determination that southern states should not be readmitted to the Union and Congress without additional guarantees. The first major interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment's effect came in the Slaughterhouse Cases (1873), in which the Court held that the basic civil rights and liberties of citizens remained under control of state law. Contrary to the expectations of some of the amendment's framers, the Supreme Court held that it did not overrule Barron v. Baltimore (1833) to require states and local governments to respect the guarantees of the Bill of Rights. The Court also held that because the amendment provided that "no state shall" deprive persons of the rights it guaranteed, Congressional legislation protecting blacks and Republicans from Ku Klux Klan violence exceeded the power of the federal government.

1865 George Peabody (Rothschilds) conceives of “tax exempt charitable foundation”.

1865 United States Military Railroad set up by banks and railroads.

1865 Union stockyards open in Chicago.

1865 Lincoln assassinated.

1865 Maxwells Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism published.

1865 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) founded.

1866 “Black Friday” on London Stock Exchange.

1866 Alfred Nobel invents dynamite and Whitehead invents torpedo.

  • 1867 Vaccination Act of 1867 in England begins to elicit protest from the population and increase in the number of anti-vaccination groups. It compelled the vaccination of a baby within the first 90 days of its life. Those who objected would be continually badgered by magistrates and fined until the child turned 14. The law was passed on the assurance of medical officials that smallpox vaccinations were safe.
  • 1867 Joseph Lister introduces sanitation into surgery, over the objections of leading English surgeons.
  • 1867 Nonpayment of fines for skipping smallpox vaccination result in harsh penalties.

1868 The National Academy of Science is set up by an act of Congress.

1869 Conference of the British Medical Association devotes its surgery discussions to an attack on antiseptic theory and the work of Lister.

1869 Transcontinental railroad completed in the United States.

1870 Standard Oil Company is incorporated.

  • 1870 Amygdalin (Laetrile) is listed in the US Pharmacopaea of 1870. (The FDA Grandfather Clause prevents the FDA from claiming jurisdiction. Upheld by US Court of Appeals, 4th District, #71-1243, Mayb 23, 1972.)

1870 Third major smallpox epidemic in England begins and lasts until 1872. Over 44,800 dies.

1870 Flu viruses derive from a global selective sweep. A single event seems to have set the stage for all pandemics since.

1871 Franco-Prussian war begins.

1871 In Birmingham, England from 1871 to 1874, there were 7,706 cases of smallpox. Out of these, 6,795 had been vaccinated.

1871 In Bavaria, Germany, vaccination is compulsory and re-vaccination is commonplace. Out of 30,472 cases of smallpox, 29,429 had been vaccinated.

1871 Worldwide epidemic of smallpox begins. Claims 8 million people worldwide.

1871 Albert Pike writes “Morals and Dogma”. Pike also writes a letter on Aug 15, 1871 (until recently on display in the British museum) to Mazzini detailing the Luciferian plan for world conquest, outlining plans for three world wars, and detailing the destruction of both Christianity and athiesm.

1871 Bulwer-Lytton writes Vril: The Power of the Coming Race, containing racial theory that would later figure in Nazi Germany. Protege of Lytton was Aleister Crowley, of Englands equivalent to the “Thule Group”, tutor to Aldous Huxley, future prophet of mind control, who would later introduce hallucinogens into American culture.

1871 Select committee of the Privy Council convened to inquire into the Vaccination Act of 1867 (England), as 97.5% of the people who died from smallpox were vaccinated for it.

1872 Mazzini dies.

1872 Japan institutes compulsory smallpox vaccination. Within 20 years 165,000 smallpox cases manifest themselves.

1872 Horace Greeley writes about the “National” Bank Act, saying “by our money system we have nationalized a system of oppression not less cruel than the old system of chattel slavery.”

1872 In England, 87% of infants are vaccinated for smallpox. Over 19,000 die in England and Wales. (See 1925).

1872 Rio Tinto Zinc company founded by Hugh Matheson with his uncles profits from opium trafficking and help from Schroder Bank in Germany, who would later fund Adoph Hitler in 1931.

1873 Banking panic of 1873.

1874 Civil marriage made compulsory in Germany.

1875 Public Health Act of 1875 in England promotes sanitary conditions.

1875 Official government statistics estimate 120,000 Americans addicted to opium.

1875 United States immigration excludes “coolies, convicts and prostitutes” as undesirable aliens.

1875 Blavatsky founds the Theosophical Society.

1876 Deutsche Reichsbank opens in Germany.

1876 Koch discovers anthrax bacillus.

1877 Standard Oil Company incorporated and gains national ascendency into the oil market. Cecil Rhodes writes the first of seven wills.

1877 Telephone and gasoline engine invented.

1878 Louis Pasteur tells his family never to show anyone his lab notebooks. His last surviving grandson donated the documents to the Bibiotheque Nationale in Paris in 1964. Later, historians would begin to examine Pasteurs notes and would find evidence of potential scientific misconduct and a large degree of dubious human experimentation. (See 1993 Gerald Geison).

1879 Gold Standard reinstated in the United States.

1879 US currency paper, first produced by Crane 

1880 Beginning of a 20 year period where elite American students of Wundt in Germany return and become heads of psychology departments at Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, Cornell and all major universities and colleges. Wundt trains James Cattell, who returns to the US and trains over 300 in the Wundtian system which, with help from the Carnegie and Rockefeller foundations, eventually assume control of psychological testing in the United States for all the soldiers of the First World War.

1880 In Denmark citizens consume 29 pounds each annually.

1880 Recorded death rate from diabetes in Denmark is 1.8 per 100,000.

1880 Britain import 105,508 chests of opium into China.

1880 Smallpox vaccinations start in the United States.

1880 Sweden consumption of refined sugar 12 pounds per person annually.

1882 United States immigration adds “luntics and idiots” to exclusion list.

1882 Koch isolates the TB Bacillus. TB death rate 370:100,000.

1882 Standard Oil Company incorporated in New Jersey as a Trust, which absorbs all other oil companies. Standard owned by railroad in N.Carolina.

1883 Karl Marx dies.

1883 Galton introduces the term “eugenics” to describe his ideas and proposes practices of racial superiority and sterilization.

1883 Lenin forms the first Russian Marxist group in Switzerland.

1883 Czar in Russia invites Nobel brothers and Rothschilds to help develop oil riches in Baku area in Russia.

1884 In England, Dr. Charles Creighton is asked to write an article for the Encyclopedia Britannica on vaccination. After much research internationally, he concludes that vaccination constituted “a gross superstition”. Later, Creighton writes two books, “Cowpox and Vaccinal Syphilis” and “Jenner and Vaccination”.

1884 In England, more that 1700 children vaccinated for smallpox die of syphillis.

1884 Fabian Society founded in London by Sidney and Beatrice Webb.

1884 Dr. Sobatta of the German Army reports on the results of vaccination to the German Vaccination Commission, which subsequently publishes data proving that re-vaccination does not work. Deaths from vaccination are routinely covered up by physicians.

1886 A seven year period begins in Japan where 25,474,370 vaccinations and re-vaccinations are performed in Japan, representing 66% of the entire population of Japan. During that period, there are 165,774 cases of smallpox with 28,979 deaths. (See 1955).

1887 Golden Dawn founded in London by Mathers.

1887 Michaelson-Morley experiments done to try to disprove Etheric Theory.

1894 Superintendent of a home for the”feeble-minded” in Kansas castrates 58 children before public revulsion forces him to stop.

1885 Modified Great Seal of the United States adopted by Congress.

1885 Rothschild monetary power reaches point of world control. Amschel Rothschild dies.

1885 German eugenicist Dr. Alfred Ploetz publishes “The Excellence of Our Race and the Protection of the Weak” in which he states that humanitarianism which fosters the protection of weaker members threatens the quality of the race.

1885 General vaccination program against rabies begins in the United States.

1886 First oil tanker built.

1887 New York doctor Ephraim Cutter publishes a book on cancer and the diet.

1887 In England, Dr. Edgar M. Crookshank, professor of pathology and bacteriology at Kings College, is asked by the British government to investigate the cowpox outbreak in Wiltshire. The result of the investigation was contained in two volumes of “The History and Pathology of Vaccination”, in which he states that “the credit given to vaccination belongs to sanitation.

1887 Dr.M.W. Barr, president of the “American Assn for the Study of Feebleness” strongly advocates sterilizarion.

1888 Standard Oil operates first foreign operation, called Anglo-American Oil Company, Ltd.

1888 Tesla invents electric motor with Westinghouse manufacturing.

1888 Cecil Rhodes creates De Beers mines in South Africa.

1888 Bacteriological Institute opens in Paris for experimentation with animals and production of vaccines and sera. Other institutes open around the world modeled after the Paris Institute.

1888 Bacteriological Institute in Odessa, Russia tries its hand at a vaccine for anthrax. Over 4500 sheep are vaccinated; 3700 of them die from the vaccination.

1888 Russia overtakes the United States in production of crude oil. Russia kerosene takes 30% of the British market.

1889 In England, a royal commission is appointed to inquire into certain aspects of the vaccination question. The committee would be in session for 7 years and would issue 6 reports, with the final report in 1896. The result of the final report was the Vaccination Act of 1898.

1889 Albert Pike issues a theological dogma to the 23 Supreme Councils of the world stating that “Lucifer and Adonay are both God”.

1889 Standard Oil production operations in Pennsylvania,Ohio, Indiana.

1889 Most of Britain´s food production becomes industrialized.

1890 Cecil Rhodes becomes Prime Minister of Cape Colony in Africa, exploiting the diamond and gold fields of Africa, and took control of Parliamentary seats and England and Africa. With financial support from Lord Rothschild, he was able to monopolize De Beers Consolidated Mines. Founded Rhodes Scholarships at Oxford.

1890 Standard Oil purchases Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum-Gesellschaft.

1890 US Depression of 1890 created by International Bankers.

1890 Sherman Silver Purchase Act.

1890 Andrew Carnegie writes a series of eleven essays called “The Gospel of Wealth”, a treatise which essentially stated that free enterprise and capitalism no longer existed in the United States, because he and Rockefeller owned everything, including the government, and that competition was impossible unless they allowed it. Eventually, says Carnegie, the young children will become aware of this and form clandestine organizations to fight against it. Carnegie proposes that men of wealth form a synthetic free enterprise system based on cradle-to-grave schooling. The people who advanced through schooling would be given licenses to lead profitable lives. All licenses are tied to forms of schooling. This way, the entire economy can be controlled and people have a motivation for them to learn what you want them to learn. It also places the minds of all children in the hands of a few social engineers. (German System).

1890 Emil vin Behring announces discovery of anti-toxins.

1891 Cecil Rhodes group joins with Cambridge group led by William Stead to form a secret society round table group. Rhodes gains control of 90% of the world diamond supply. The Round Table group is founded.

1891 Tesla invents the Tesla Coil and becomes a US citizen.

1891 Wireless telegraphy begins in the United States.

1892 Gustave Le Bon writes “The Evolution of Matter”, detailing the use of ordinary non-radioactive elements to create nuclear reactions. Heavily suppressed data not permitted in the public domain.

1892 Cholera epidemic in Hamburg, Germany. Threat of importation into the US forced the establishment of the New York City Health Department division of Pathology, Bateriology and Disinfection.

1892 Rockefeller Trust transferred to holding company, Standard Oil of New Jersey.

1893 Standard Oil establishes resident agents

General Chronological Studies: 1900 - 1929
Copyright © 1994-2004 Leading Edge Research Group

1900 By 1900, all PhD´s in the United States were trained in Prussia (Germany). The degree is a German invention. These German educated men would become presidents of American Universities, heads of research facilities (both corporate and government).

1900 AMA began to achieve goal of replacing existing medical system with allopathy

1900 Royal Institute of International Affairs policy makers for colonial US Gov´t.

1900 Cancer causes 4% of deaths in the United States.

1900 Deaths from measles were 13 per 100,000 (13:100,000)

1900 Tesla reaches New York, which is the time period when he claims to have received off-planet transmissions.

1900 In Germany, Wilhelm Schallmeyer writes “Inheritance and Selection in the Life History of Nationalities: A Sociopolitical Study Based on the Newer Biology”, which puts forward the idea of premarital screening by doctors for “undesirable” inheritable traits.

1900 Over 6,000 people fall ill in Britain after beer is contaminated with arsenic from the production of carbonic acid gas from coal in the sugar refining process.

1900 Max Planck formulates quantum theory.

1901 J.P. Morgan partner Willard Straight becomes assistant to Sir Robert Hart, chief of Imperial Chinese Customs Service, conduting opium traffic. Later, Straight becomes head of Morgan Banks Far Eastern operations.

1901 Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research founded.

1901 Tesla patent 685,012, in which he describes supercooling of conductors to lower resistence. At this time, Tesla wanted to sue Marconi for patent infringement. Marconi had used Tesla patent #645,576, filed in 1897 and issued March 20, 1900. Tesla begins building WardenclyffeTower for radio broadcasting and wireless transmission of power.

1901 J.P. Morgan buys $23 million in stock of Central Railroad of New Jersey.

1902 Rockefeller General Education Board founded, with the objective of racial amalgamation and abolition of difference between sexes. The overt stated objective: “the promotion of education in the United States without distinctions of sex, race or creed.”. Incorporators include Frederick T. Gates (Rockefellers right-hand man), Daniel Coit Gilman (vp Peabody Fund and Slater Fund, president of University of California (1872) and Johns Hopkins (1875), incorporator and first president of the Carnegie Institute and original incorporator of Russell Sage Foundation. Gilman helped set up the Yale Trust in 1856 to finance the Skull & Bones organization. Other original directors of the General Education Board included Morris K. Jessup, a banker who had been treasurer of the Peabody and Slater Funds, and Walter Hines Page, who as US ambassador to Britain would help involve the US in World War I, and George Peabody, who would be appointed the first director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1921) and later became a director of FDR´s Warm Springs Foundation and treasurer to the Democratic Party. Peabody espoused to Fabian Socialism. The General Education Board was pushed through Congress in by Senator Nelson Aldrich.

1902 Paul and Felix Warburg emigrate to the United States.

1902 The Chicago Health Department develops its “vaccination creed”, which states that “true vaccination repeated until it ´no longer takes´ always prevents smallpox. Nothing else does.” The policy is immediately taken up by the US military.

1902 Tesla files patent #1,119,732 on an “Appratus For Transmitting Electrical Energy. Patent issued in 1914. Also #685,975, “Apparatus for Utilization of Radient Energy”.

1902 British Lord Kelvin proclaims agreement with Tesla in regard to two issues: Mars was signaling America, and the conservation of non-renewable resources.

1903 Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research expands influence.

1903 William J. (Bill) Donovan studies law at Columbia University until 1908. FDR was one of Donovans classmates. (See 1915)

1903 Tesla´s money problems grow more severe. J.P. Morgan sends the remainder of the promised $150,000, but it barely covers bills.

1903 United States immigration adds “Epileptics and insane persons” to the list of excluded persons.

1903 Tesla patent #723,188 and #725,605 contain principles of logical AND circuit element.

1904 Carnegie Institution of Washington establishes a biological experiment station at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Eugenicist Charles B. Davenport is assigned to be director.

1904 German Alfred Ploetz founds the Archive for Racial and Social Biology, which becomes the chief journal of the German eugenics or race hygiene movement. Eugenics is popularized in Germany by Ernst Haeckel.

1904 German chemical companies negotiate to merge interests.

1904 John D. Rockefeller issues “Occasional Letter No.1″ detailing plans to mold the people, reduce national intelligence to the lowest common denominator, destroy parental influence, traditional and customs, and eliminate science and real learning, “in order to perfect human nature”.

1904 First ultraviolet lamps invented. General theory of radioactivity postulated.

1904 Eugenics established as a course at University College in London.

1904 Eugenics laboratory established at Cold Springs Harbor on Long Island, constructed by Charles B. Davenport. Cold Springs Harbor was also the location of the estates of both Dulles brothers. Cold Springs facility is funded in excess of $11 million by the Harrimans and the Rockefellers.

1905 Food and Drug Act passed in the United States.

1905 From 1905 until the First World War a great deal of literature was in evidence that attacked the “intellectual nature” of education.

1905 Eleven states in the US have compulsory vaccination laws; 34 states do not. No states physically force injections on citizens, Vaccination was made compulsory without state legislation providing for analysis of its history.

1905 Assassination of Ohio governor Steunenberg.

1905 Anglo-Chinese agreement. Chinese agree to reduce domestic opium production.

1905 British Fabian Society opens an American branch, the Intercollegiate Socialist Society (ISS). Changed name to League for Industrial Democracy in 1921. One of the founders was John Dewey, who would travel to Russia in the late 1920´s to help organize a Marxist educational system.

1905 First Communist Revolution in Russia fails. Lenin sent to Switzerland. Funds used for this first attempt provided by John D. Rockefeller through Standard Oil representatives.

1905 Einstein formulates his Special Theory of Relativity and photon theory of light.

1905 Benedictine monk Adolph Lanz forms the Order of the New Temple, and was publisher of the magazine Ostara, which had the ancient symbol of the swastika on the cover. In later years , Adolph Hitler would meet with Lanz at Lambach Abbey, where Hitler would be introduced to Vienna´s occult orders. The organization promoted Aryan Templarism and a war with worldwide Jewry, who were seen to be the secret masters behind the manipulation of world political and financial systems. It is from this meeting that Hitler would develop the ideas brought forth in Mein Kampf.

1905 New York Times notes in its obituary of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild that he possessed $60 million in American securities, depite the fact that financial authorities deny Rothschilds are active in US finance.

1906 J.P. Morgans Southern Railroad Merger.

1906 William A Rockefeller dies in Freeport,Illinois

1906 First Pure Food and Drug law in the United States passed.

1906 Election in England.

1906 China and Britain agree to reduction of opium production.

1906 Investigations into the content of Coca-Cola are halted by the US Secretary of Agriculture.

1906 In Germany, followers of Haeckel form the influential Monist League, pressing for a government patterned along Darwinian lines.

1907 England passes the Vaccination Act of 1907, after the newly elected government comes to power. The act allowed a statutory objection from a parent relative to a child vaccination before the child was four months old.

1907 Indiana passes the world´s first compulsory sterilization law for “all confirmed criminals, idiots, rapists and imbeciles” who were confined in state institutions. By 1908, 30 states passed similar laws.

1907 At the Indiana State Reformatory, 475 males receive vasectomies.

1907 United States immigration adds “imbeciles and feeble-minded persons” to the exclusion list.

1907 Bureau of Chemistry empowered by Congress to police quality of US food.

1907 US Depression of 1907 created by International Bankers.

1907 Allan Dulles secretary to Hague Peace Conference.

1907 J.P. Morgan precipitates Banking Panic of 1907 after Rothschild visits, as a future “example” of America´s need for a central bank. J.P. Morgan would eventually gain control of all large insurance companies in the US.

1908 Standard Oil achieves transcontinental US pipeline.

1908 Fritz Haber synthesizes ammonia.

1908 Federal Bureau for Investigation founded in the US.

1908 Founding of the Armanen Initiates, another proto-Nazi secret society.

1908 I.G. Farben discovers sulfanilamide. It is kept secret for 28 years. 1908 Tunguska explosion in the Soviet Union.

1909 Massachusetts Senate introduces bill prohibiting compulsory vaccination.

1909 Harriman Research Institute formed when E.H.Harriman dies.

1909 Marconi shares the Nobel with German Carl Braun for separate but parallel development of the wireless telegraph.

1909 Germans discover how to convert coal into gasoline.

1909 T. Henry Moray begins to experiment with extraction of electricity from the ground.

1909 FDR invests in Oak Island Treasure Company off Nova Scotia.

1909 Carnegie Institution of Washington incorporated by Daniel Coit Gilman, Frederic Delano, Cleveland Dodge and others.

1909 Lord Alfred Milner begins organizing round table groups in chief British dependencies and in the United States. ( to 1913).

1909 Rockefeller Sanitary Commission established. Beginning of Rockefeller Foundation.

1909 New York Press, January 26, 1909 publishes a report by W.B. Clark which states, ” cancer was practically unknown until cowpox vaccination began to be introduced. I have seen 200 cases of cancer, and I never saw a case of cancer in an unvaccinated person.” Scientific evidence begins to mount that where human lymph is employed in a vaccine, syphilis, leprosy and TB soon follow.

Between 1918 and 1919, Spanish influenza infected up to 40 percent of the world’s population, killing 50 million people. In the United States, between September 1918 and April 1919, 675,000 people died from the disease.

1927 the year in which U.S. Virgin Islanders were granted American citizenship.
In 2009, the proposed U.S. Virgin Islands Constitution voted by the Fifth Constitutional Convention established three definitions of U.S. Virgin Islanders: "Ancestral Native Virgin Islander" - those with ancestral ties (and their descendants); "Native Virgin Islander" - those born on the island (and their descendants); and "Virgin Islander" - any United States citizen who has resided in the territory for five years.

1935, the Dutch colonial empire was stripped of it's former colonies South-Africa, Ceylon, Goldcoast and Guyana, but the Dutch East Indies + Suriname + the 6 Netherlands Antilles islands still comprised an area of 2.080.000 sq/km and with a population of 69 million (1940: 80 million), it was after the British and French, the third most populous colonial empire in the world.

Between 1957 and 1958, Asian influenza killed 4 million people in the world and 70,000 in the United States. One reason that Asian flu wasn’t as deadly as Spanish flu was that an American scientist saw it coming and made a vaccine to prevent it—the first person in history to successfully predict and modify an influenza pandemic. His name was Maurice Hilleman. Decades later, Hilleman made a predication about the next great influenza pandemic.
On April 17, 1957, while sitting in his office at the Walter Reed Army Medical Research Institute, Hilleman read an article in the New York Times titled “Hong Kong Battling Influenza Epidemic.” “I saw an article that said that there were 20,000 people lined up being taken to the dispensaries,” he said. “And children with glassy-eyed stares, tied to their mother’s backs, were waiting to be seen.” Public health officials estimated that the virus had already infected 250,000 people, 10 percent of Hong Kong’s population. Hilleman put down the paper: “My God,” he said, “This is the pandemic. It’s here.”  One month later, Hilleman received throat washings from a navy serviceman infected with the virus. Hilleman tested sera from hundreds of civilians in the United States to see whether anyone had antibodies to the virus. No one did. The strain of virus circulating in Hong Kong was new.  Hilleman then sent samples of what was later called Asian flu to six American-based vaccine manufacturers. He figured that if he were to have any hope of saving American lives, he would have to convince companies to make and distribute influenza vaccine in four months. He also knew that the production of millions of doses of influenza vaccine would require hundreds of thousands of eggs a day. He urged farmers not to kill their roosters, even though it was late in the hatching season.  Pharmaceutical companies made the first lots of Asian influenza vaccine in June 1957. Vaccinations began in July. By late fall, companies had distributed 40 million doses. At the beginning of the school year, Asian influenza entered the United States. The National Health Survey estimated that during the week of October 13 alone, 12 million people were sick with influenza. Within a few months, influenza had infected 20 million Americans. Although the 1957 pandemic killed only a fraction of those killed during the 1918 pandemic, the two pandemics shared one sad feature: the disease disproportionately killed healthy young people. During the 1957 pandemic more than 50 percent of infections occurred in children and teenagers, at least a thousand of whom died from the disease—numbers that would have been far greater had it not been for Hilleman’s vaccine.


Maritime Law

International waters

2015 Maritime Law International Waters
“Like the Wild West. Weak rules, few sheriffs, lots of outlaws.”

Ships at sea: positions and weather observations

"Ships intentionally dump more engine oil and sludge" in 3 yrs than Deepwater Horizon & Exxon Valdez combined

Few places on the planet are as lawless as the high seas, where egregious crimes are routinely committed with impunity. Though the global economy is ever more dependent on a fleet of more than four million fishing and small cargo vessels and 100,000 large merchant ships that haul about 90 percent of the world’s goods, today’s maritime laws have hardly more teeth than they did centuries ago when history’s great empires first explored the oceans’ farthest reaches. Vessels that disappear over the horizon tend to vanish not just from sight but from oversight, a New York Times investigation found. Countries have signed dozens of maritime pacts, the shipping industry has published reams of guidelines and the United Nations maritime agency has written hundreds of rules, all aimed at regulating ships, crews and safety. But those laws are also often weak, contradictory and easily skirted by criminals. National and international agencies usually have neither the inclination nor resources to enforce them.
The modern flagging system, which allows ships to buy the right to fly the flag of a country as long as it promises to follow its laws, provides good cover for the unscrupulous.  Usually, a ship may be stopped on the high seas only by a law enforcement or military vessel flying the same flag. The world’s navies, though, have been scaling down for decades. Most nations, including the Bahamas, whose flag the Dona Liberta flew, have no ships that regularly patrol beyond their national waters. (Some landlocked countries like Mongolia and Bolivia offer flags for cheaper costs.)

Cruise into 'International Waters'

Cruise companies from the disreputable to the luxurious offer short trips to the waters just outside Hong Kong's jurisdiction, where passengers can live for at least a night as people without a state, which in most cases means one thing: gambling. As spelled out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, a country's territorial water extends 12 nautical miles from its coastline. The area within the next 12 nautical miles is known as the "contiguous zone", where it has limited authority to institute activity such as border patrols. Beyond those 24 nautical miles lie the high seas, where national laws have no authority.The high seas being a lawless place is not entirely true - ships are still obliged to follow the statutes of its "flag state". Perceptions of lawlessness are mostly a function of enforcement; since international waters do not belong to any state there is no one to enforce the law. The position of cruise ships is a bit more complicated. Because most are registered under flags of convenience for tax purposes, the chance of flag states enforcing laws would be very slim, Anand says.

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

"Beyond those 24 nautical miles lie the high seas, where national laws have no authority"

That's not really the case.

A nation's EEZ (exclusive economic zone) extends at least 200 miles, within which a nation has certain rights to regulate economic activities. The flag country has jurisdiction over the ship at all times. And, the flag country can make whatever arrangements they want with other powers. For instance, it's routine for the US Coast Guard to stop ships travelling in "international waters" because it has agreements with, eg, the government of Panama that it may do so.

TRACK Ships at sea: positions and weather observations —



Men who have fled servitude on fishing boats recount beatings and worse as nets are cast for the catch that will become pet food and livestock feed.

AP tracks slave boats to Papua New Guinea

Malaysia stricken from list of egregious human trafficking violators, clears way for it to join massive TPP agreement.

Obama signs new illegal fishing rules 
U.S. President Barack Obama has signed the Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing Enforcement Act, marking another step in the Administration’s efforts to combat IUU fishing and seafood fraud.  The bi-partisan legislation includes a number of provisions preventing illegally harvested fish from entering the United States and supports efforts to achieve sustainable fisheries around the world.

Inside the commodity trader Vitol that pulls the levers of the global economy 
Vitol is one of the biggest trading companies on the planet and the ninth largest corporation in the world by revenue. It is the ninth largest corporation in the world by revenue, behind only Shell and BP from the FTSE 100, and comfortably ahead of Volkswagen, Apple and Chevron. 2014 Vitol’s sprawling empire raked in $270bn in sales. The firm is among handful of mega-trading houses, that have been quietly operating in the shadows at the heart of global trade and commodity markets, keeping the world economy running with a constant supply of fuels, base metals, chemicals and foodstuffs. Vitol has helped to prop up fledging, cash-strapped governments reliant on the sale of its raw materials on the international markets, and been pivotal in the toppling of others. Vitol had been a key backer of the Libyan revolution.

Typical trade, it is hard not to picture an investment bank trading desk. Vitol is Dutch-owned but has headquarters in Geneva, where it employs an army of razor-sharp young traders. It also has a battalion of brokers working from an office block in Victoria, London; other big hubs in Houston and Singapore; and nearly 40 other offices around the world, all of which can be called upon to help execute one of its many complex deals.
In 2012, it was revealed that the company had ignored EU sanctions prohibiting the trading of Iranian oil, purchasing 2 million barrels of fuel rom Tehran. As a company based in Switzerland, Vitol was not bound by the ban, and nor was its Bahraini arm, which bought the cargo. In 2007 when Vitol was among 2,200 companies in 66 countries found guilty of paying kickbacks to win oil supply deals. It pleaded guilty to grand larceny in the US for providing kickbacks to government officials under the UN oil-for-food program.
Crude oil, diesel, aviation fuel, benzene, alumina, bitumen, ethanol, methanol, coal, iron ore, liquid natural gas, sugar, maize, wheat, rice, soybeans and rapeseed: Vitol continually ships thousands of tonnes of nearly every major commodity and raw material around the planet. Its shipments fuel our cars, planes, and trains, heat millions of homes, fire up cookers and ovens, cover roofs and road surfaces, and provide raw material for plastics, paint, chemicals, foodstuffs, steel, aluminium, and thousands of other basic goods that we touch, use, wear, or eat, every day. Vitol, and its rivals Glencore, Trafigura, Gunvor, and Mercuria, have emerged as the powerbrokers pulling the levers of the global economy.

Jun 4 2017 The Next Plague Is Around the Corner
Disease experts are not worried about Ebola or Zika or even MERS—but instead with a disease that has killed millions in the 20th century.

On April 7, 2017, Sanjay Gupta hosted a program on CNN titled “Unseen Enemy.” Gupta linked his program to an article titled, “The Big One Is Coming, and It’s Going to Be a Flu Pandemic”. On April 21, 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a monograph titled, “Community Mitigation Guidelines to Prevent Pandemic Influenza—United States, 2017,” highlighting non-pharmaceutical interventions to stop the spread of flu like face masks, quarantine, and school closures.